Food Security Framework | Hazards
There are several recurrent natural hazards affecting food security in the country. The most common and damaging ones (in agriculture) are related to rainfall deficits or surpluses.
Hazards that affect the landless and smallholder farmers in zones 5, 6, 8, 9, 14, 18 and 20 include:
· Frosts and hail in the highlands (from December to March), which mainly affect vegetable production in zone 5.
· Hard winds can affect agriculture in general.
· Above-normal rainfall can affect agriculture and health in areas prone to flooding, due to excess moisture, and water stagnation and contamination.
· Drought is most common in the ?dry corridor? and is a serious risk for agriculture, usually during the primera season (May to October). Drought mainly affects livelihood zones 5, 7, 8 and 9. A strip in the south coast (zone 13) is also vulnerable to drought although to a lesser extent.
· Landslides impact agriculture and access (to food, markets, health care) for shorter periods. Landslides occur in the mountainous areas in the central and north-western parts of the country (zones 5, 6, 14 and 18).
· Pests and plagues, affecting agriculture and livestock. There is not really any particular season where pests and plagues affect basic grains, even though changes in climate patterns and plant nutrition may play a role in their presence.
· Some of the hazards referred to above are modified by the presence of El Niņo or La Niņa phenomenon (excess or deficit of rainfall, for example).
Hazards that affect artisan fishermen in zones 13 and 19:
· Flooding can affect artisan fishermen fishing from the shore and in rivers (Pacific and Atlantic coastal areas) as the waters are contaminated. Flooding normally occurs during the rainy season, April to November.
· Hurricanes have a negative impact on agriculture, livestock, fishing (waters get contaminated), and pose a great danger to fishermen at sea. The hurricane season lasts from June until November.
· El Niņo and La Niņa phenomena affect marine resources and abundance in the coastal areas, either positively or negatively depending on the sea temperature.
· Dengue and malaria are common during the rainy season.