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Presence Country
Livelihood Description

Mali Livelihood Zone Descriptions

August 2015

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Would likely be at least one phase worse without current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET classification is IPC-compatible. IPC-compatible analysis follows key IPC protocols but does not necessarily reflect the consensus of national food security partners.

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET classification is IPC-compatible. IPC-compatible analysis follows key IPC protocols but does not necessarily reflect the consensus of national food security partners.
FEWS NET Remote Monitoring countries use a colored outline to represent the highest IPC classification in areas of concern.

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

Presence countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Remote monitoring
countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance
FEWS NET Remote Monitoring countries use a colored outline to represent the highest IPC classification in areas of concern.

Summary

In October 2013, another livelihood zone revision workshop was held by the national HEA working group and attended by several civil society organizations (CSOs), the national early warning system (EWS), line ministry technical services, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and United Nations agencies. A first version of the revised map was produced, resulting in an increase in the number of zones from 13 to 19.

Finally, in December 2014, a validation workshop was held under FEWS NET's technical supervision after completion of a field mission. Participants at the workshop addressed several questions concerning the first version of the map published in October 2013. They validated the revised map, which had fewer livelihood zones than the first version. The total number of zones therefore rose from 13 to 17 rather than from 13 to 19.

This report, which summarizes the main characteristics of the map, describes four of the five new livelihood zones: ML 13 (Center-eastern Millet and Livestock), ML 14 (Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum), ML 15 (Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize), and ML 16 (Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize). The existing livelihood profile document can be used for the old livelihood zones, which have remained unchanged.

ML13 - Center-eastern Millet and Livestock

The Center-eastern Millet and Livestock Zone covers the center of Koulikoro and Ségou and the eastern part of the region of Mopti. This zone is characterized by production deficits that barely cover six months of food needs in a normal year, with crops dominated by rain-fed millet and sorghum grown in depressions and the early season sorghum variety "Gadiaba." Dry-planting of millet is occurring more frequently, with little use of enhanced seeds and fertilizers. The presence of market gardening sites in ponds and wells throughout the zone depends on the amount of rainfall from June through September.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds (cattle and small ruminants) and offers households a way to cover crop production deficits.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are livestock sales, migration, farm and non-farm labor, self-employment, and crop sales.

For these same poor households, in-kind payments are a significant source of food, with crop production making a small contribution to household food sources.

The main markets in the zone are those in Diéma, Nara, Koro, Douentza, Mondoro, Boni, Diancounté Camara, Didiéni, and Niono.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought, crop pests, animal diseases, and floods.

ML14 - Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum

The Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum Zone is made up of Lake Horo (Tonka commune), Lake Télé (mainly the Goundam, Doukouria, Kaneye, and Télé communes and a small part of the Bintagoungou commune), *Lake Fathi (Goundam commune and Tindirma commune in the Diré cercle), Lake Faguibine (Raz el Ma, Bintagoungou, M'Bouna, Tin Aïcha, Essakane, and Issabery communes), Lake Gouber and Lake Kamango (Essakane) in the Goundam cercle, Lake Niangaye (Bambara-Maoundé commune and N'Gouma commune in the region of Mopti), *Lake Tanda (Dianké), *Lake Kabara (Soumpi), and *Lake Takadji (Soboundou) in the Niafunké cercle.

The zone's great production potential depends largely on the water level, which determines the performance of some lakes and the structures within them, which help to secure production. Crop planting (millet, sorghum, rice, legumes, maize, tubers, wheat) thanks to lake recessions in February-March and rainfall in June helps crops continue their development cycle, which is why they are called "long-cycle recessional" crops (six to nine months). Rice is harvested in August-September, while tubers and legumes are harvested in March. The zone suffers from crop production deficits, with production covering six to nine months of food needs in a normal year.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds (cattle and small ruminants), constituting a secondary activity for households. The zone has a high concentration of livestock during the dry season.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are livestock sales, migration, farm and non-farm labor, self-employment, and crop sales.

The main markets in the zone are those in Tonka, Goundam, Bintagoungou, Soboundou, Soumpi, Dianké, and N’Gouma.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought (low rainfall and low water levels in rivers), crop pests, animal diseases, floods, and civil insecurity.

ML15 - Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize

The Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize Zone covers the entire Bafoulabé cercle, except northern Diakon and eastern Dialan, the Kita cercle (Kokofata, Tambaga, Bougarybaya, Niatanso, Toukoto, Namala Guimba, Madina, Sud Dindanko, Sud Djougoun, Kourounikoto, and Sefeto Ouest), and the Kolokani cercle (Kolokani, Guihoyo, southern Didieni, northern Mansantola, and Sebekoro).

The main crops grown in the zone are sorghum, maize, groundnuts, cowpeas, and sesame. The zone is a supply basin for the entire region thanks to its surplus cereal production, with high production levels of cash crops such as groundnuts and cotton (with the support of the Compagnie malienne pour le développement des textiles, or CMDT). Rainfed sorghum and particularly maize require heavy use of fertilizers. The zone is also characterized by the presence of large market garden production areas in the off-season.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds. The zone has a high concentration of livestock during the dry season, providing it with milk and meat.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are cash crop sales, livestock rearing, migration, gold mining, farm and non-farm labor, and self-employment.

The main markets in the zone are those in Kita, Krounikoto, Kokofata, Bafin Makana, Koumakiré, Sitanikoto, Oualia, Kolokani, Sebecoro 1, Massantola, Toukoto, Mahina, Oussoubidiania, and Goufan.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought, crop pests (birds, caterpillars, etc.), the deterioration of road and trail conditions, the straying of animals, unstable groundnut and cotton prices, and animal diseases.

ML16 - Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize

The Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize Zone covers the Keniéba cercle, southern Dialafara, Sitakili, Keniéba, Dabia, and western Kassama. It has moderate to severe production deficits and is dominated by rainfed sorghum and maize crops. The zone faces a steady decrease in arable land with the development of gold mining activities. Farm labor is provided by able-bodied workers from neighboring zones and other regions of the country.

The zone is characterized by the rearing of cattle and small ruminants (sheep and goats), mainly for meat production.

Fishing is practiced as a subsistence activity, particularly by Bozos who come from other areas via the waterways that span the zone.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are gold mining, farm labor, and self-employment. The foods consumed there are maize, sorghum, millet, and cowpeas.

The main markets in the zone are those in Kéniéba, Guéniékoré, Kita, Faléa, Dialafara, Faraba, and Sagalo.

Hazards and risks in the zone are unstable gold prices, low water availability during the dry season, crop pests (birds, caterpillars, etc.), the deterioration in the condition of roads and trails, animal diseases, landslides in mines, and speculation of food prices.

About Livelihood Description

Livelihood Zone Description accompanies a zone map, briefly describing the main characteristics of the livelihood patterns in that zone. The maps and descriptions, which identify relevant variables by geography, are useful in informing the development of monitoring systems.

About FEWS NET

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. Created by USAID in 1985 to help decision-makers plan for humanitarian crises, FEWS NET provides evidence-based analysis on some 34 countries. Implementing team members include NASA, NOAA, USDA, and USGS, along with Chemonics International Inc. and Kimetrica. Read more about our work.

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