Presence Country
Special Report

Nutrition situation in Borno and Yobe states remains extreme in several locations

October 2016

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Would likely be at least one phase worse without current or programmed humanitarian assistance

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance

IPC 2.0 Acute Food Insecurity Phase

Presence countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3: Crisis
4: Emergency
5: Famine
Remote monitoring
countries:
1: Minimal
2: Stressed
3+: Crisis or higher
Would likely be at least one phase worse without
current or programmed humanitarian assistance
Partners: 
ACF
UNICEF

Nutrition survey and screening results

Despite the start of main season harvests, the Boko Haram conflict continues to limit accessibility, humanitarian assistance, liveihoods, and trade in parts of Borno and Yobe States.  Mass MUAC screenings from the last six months continue to indicate a nutrition emergency in recently accessible localities, including Bama, Banki, Monguno, Konduga, Gamboru, and Ngala in Borno and Tarmuwa, Gujba, and Gulani in Yobe. In these areas, the proportion of screened children who were acutely malnourished (MUAC<125mm) ranged from 20 to 50 percent. These levels reflect an “Extreme Critical” situation according to the IPC for Acute Malnutrition and are associated with a significantly increased risk of child mortality. Conditions may be worse in areas that remain inaccessible.

The situation remains “Critical” in the more accessible areas of Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri Metropolitan Center (MMC), and Jere LGAs in Borno State, where GAM levels among children screened continue to range from 10 to 15 percent (GAM, MUAC<125mm). This is despite relatively open access to humanitarian actors. In addition, though LGA-level data from these areas is Critical, specific locations within these LGAs face significantly more severe nutrition outcomes. For example, data from UNICEF’s polio vaccination campaign in MMC and Jere indicates that 18 to 25 percent of children were malnourished (MUAC<125mm) in 10 of the 36 wards assessed. Meanwhile, MSF screenings in Customs House IDP Camp, Bolori, and Maimsumari found that 40-60 percent of screened children were acutely malnourished (MUAC<125mm).

Therapeutic feeding program in Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa state

Acutely malnourished children in some areas of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe States have received nutritional and medical rehabilitation through outpatient therapeutic feeding programs in State health facilties. The map above shows monitored health facilities rendering CMAM services and reported admission density by LGA. Data available indicates that in August 2016 Jere, Monguno and MMC LGAs had between 1,000 and 2,000 reported new admissions for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), while LGAs in the northwestern fringes of Yobe state comprising Machina, Yusufari, Bursari and Bade recorded between 501 and 1,000 new admissions. The 7,000 total reported cases in August represent only a small fraction of the estimated 300,000 severe acute malnutrition (SAM) cases that UNICEF reports targeting in the three states. Although these admission numbers show an improving trend as improved accessibility and security allows for better service delivery, many facilities remain at limited functionality with inadequate numbers of health workers and irregular medical supply chains. Borno State’s Health Sector reports that over half of the 632 assessed health facilities are damaged, looted or closed while eight LGAs have three health partners or less serving the population (Abadam, Mobbar and Marte have zero).  In Adamawa State, data is available from IRC which is providing CMAM services through community health workers and facility staff in three LGAs (Maihi, Mubi South and Hong). 

Acutely malnourished children in UNICEF monitored IDP camps

Mass MUAC screenings are conducted on a weekly basis in IDP camp health centers supported by UNICEF. From August to  September 2016 these screenings continued to identify a very high number of malnourished children in a majority of the camps, including a significant number of cases of severe acute malnutrition. Children with severe acute malnutrition are at a significantly increased risk of death. MUAC screening-based GAM levels continue to surpass 15 percent in 15 of the 23 camps reporting new data. In 14 of the camps, the proportion of screened children identified as acutely malnourished had increased in the current period (August 8th to September 30th) in comparison to the previous two-month period from June 6th to August 7th. While health screening data is also not statistically representative, it provides further evidence of extremely poor nutrition outcomes in northeast Nigeria.

About FEWS NET

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on food insecurity. Created by USAID in 1985 to help decision-makers plan for humanitarian crises, FEWS NET provides evidence-based analysis on some 35 countries. Implementing team members include NASA, NOAA, USDA, and USGS, along with Chemonics International Inc. and Kimetrica. Read more about our work.